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Environment of Sri Lanka

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Waterfalls of Sri Lanka

Lot of Waterfalls are situated in Sri Lanka. Click and explore them..

Ancient Kingdoms of Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka have great history. click and explore ..

Economic of Sri Lanka

Economics of Sri Lanka is increasing rapidly in these years..

Monday, October 8, 2012

List of Endemic birds Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka is the world famous bird living place which had recorded 427 species, 250 species are resident and 26 species are endemic to the island. Most of endemic birds are living in the wet zone at sinharaja forest which is published as world heritage. List of the endemic birds is given bellow.

English Name

Scientific Name
Ceylon Junglefowl
Gallus lafayettii (Phasianidae)
Wali Kukula
Ceylon Spurfowl
Galloperdix bicalcarata (Phasianidae)
Lanka Haban Kukula
Layard's Parakeet
Psittacula calthorpae (Psittacidae)
Green-billed Coucal
Centropus chlororhynchos (Cuculidae)
Sri Lanka Woodpigeon
Columba torringtoni (Columbidae)
Sri Lankan Hanging Parrot
Loriculus beryllinus (Psittacidae)
Lanka Giramalitta
Chestnut-backed Owlet
Glaucidium castanonotum (Strigidae)
Red-faced Malkoha
Phaenicophaeus pyrrhocephalus (Cuculidae)
Wataratu Malkoha
Sri Lankan Gray Hornbill
Ocyceros gingalensis (Bucerotidae)
Sri Lankan Bush Warbler
Elaphrornis palliseri (Sylviidae)
Yellow-eared Bulbul
Pycnonotus penicillatus (Pycnonotidae)
Oluwa Rathu Kottoruwa
Sri Lanka Blue Magpie
Urocissa ornata (Corvidae)

Ashy-headed Laughing-thrush
Garrulax cinereifrons (Timaliidae)
Orange-billed Babbler
Turdoides rufescens (Timaliidae)
Ratu Demalichcha
Sri Lanka White-eye
Zosterops ceylonensis (Zosteropidae)
Lanka Sithasiya
Sri Lanka Whistling Thrush
Myophonus blighi (Turdidae)
Sri Lanka Myna
Gracula ptilogenys (Sturnidae)
Lanka Salalihiniya
White-faced Starling
Sturnus albofrenatus (Sturnidae)
Spot-winged Thrush
Zoothera spiloptera (Turdidae)
Lanka Thithpiya Thirasikaya
Dull Verditer Flycatcher
Eumyias sordidus (Muscicapidae)

Legge's Flower pecker
Dicaeum vincens (Dicaeidae)
The Black-capped Bulbul
Pycnontus melanicterus
Hisakalu Kondaya

Endemic birds Sri Lanka


Haban Kukula

Friday, October 5, 2012

History of the Buddhist flag

Buddhist Flag
Buddhist Flag

Sri Lanka is a Buddhist country. Majority of peoples in Sri Lanka are Buddhists. Current flag of the Buddhism created in 1885 CE. Buddhism was collapsed in 18th century due to various impacts of the British missionaries.    Therefore Sinhala leaders built a society for protect Buddhism and provides leadership for battle to gain independence. This society appointed a committee for creates a flag for Buddhism; in that time as a religion Buddhism had not flag. Committee members was,

  1. Ven. Migettuwaththe Gunananda thero
  2. Hikkaduwe Sri Sumangala thero
  3. Don Karolis hewavitharana
  4. P.D. Damma Gunawardene
  5. Charls de Silva
  6. Peetar Abru
  7. N.S. Fanando
  8. Karolis pujitha Gunawardene

Structure of the flag was designed by Karolis Pojitha Jayawardena and it was accepted by the committee. This was flag was design according to colors circle of rays of Buddha.   Flag had five colors. Those are Blue, yellow, red, white and orange. Flag was published in newspaper named “Sarasavi Sandha Rasa” in order to exhibit to public. First Buddhist flag was used in 17th April, 1885 Vesak Poya day. And it was hoisted by Ven. Migettuwaththe Gunananda.  In the 1950 this flag also use as flag for the Buddhism after approved by the World Buddhist Associations Meeting conduced in Colombo.

Thursday, October 4, 2012

National symbols of Sri Lanka

Various nations are living in world and they speak various languages and they believe various religions. Also their lifestyles, clothes, customs, foods vary from one nation to one, but all countries use national symbols to shown their national and cultural uniqueness. As well as several national symbols can be identified in Sri Lanka

  • National flag
  • National Song
  • National logo
  • National bird
  • National Flower
  • National Cloth
  • National Sport
  • National tree

Some countries use these all symbols and most of countries use only several symbols. But Sri Lanka use those all symbols.

National flag of the Sri Lanka

National flag is common this in every country. Usage of the flag has lot of history. According to historical fact, first map in the world created in chain year before1122 CE.  First evident for using flag in Sri Lanka is one of the drawing about arrival of the Vijaya to Sri Lanka in the Sanchi Sthupa india. Current flad of the Sri Lanka created base on the flag of the final king, Sri Wickrama Rajasinghe.   Background of this flag was red color and it consists with yellow color border. This flag acquired by British and it was deposited in the write hall church. In the 1908 that flag was found in the England. Sri Lanka acquired independence in 04th February 1948. After that first prime Minister Mr. DS Senanayeke appointed a committee in order to design flog for Sri Lanka. Committee members was,
  • S.W.R.D Bandaranayake (presendent of the Committee)
  • Prof. Senarath Paranavithana (Secretory of the committee)
  • Mr. T.B.Jaya
  • Mr. G.G. Ponnambalam
  • Mr. J.R.Jayewardene
  • Mr. Lalith Rajapaksha
  • Mr. Jorn Kothalawala

Flag was rebuilt by Mr. J.A.D. Perera and S.J. Charlis according to the guidelines of the committee.

Elements of National flag Sri Lanka

National Flag of Sri Lanka

Background of the flag is red color and consists with a lion with a sword and there are four Boo leafs corner on the flog. Left site on the lion there are have two lines with orange and green colors. Orange colored line represents Tamil peoples and green colored line represents the Muslim peoples. Lion who with a sword represents arrogant of the nation and four leafs symbolize the righteous of peoples. Committee decided some standards for National flag, length of the flag should be two times of width of the flag.  They also decided the size of the symbols in the flag.


Sigiriya Rock Fortress

Sigiriya in Google map

View Larger Map 

Sigiriya is a one of the famous and most attractive place in Sri Lanka. Sigiriya means lion’s rock. Hight of the rock is around 200 meters.  According to the history of Sri Lanka this rock used as a kingdom in Sri Lanka by king Kashyapa in 5th century.  This rock is one of the UNESCO heritages in Sri Lanka. Sigiriya consists with all features in the kingdom such as flower gardens, lakes, caves etc. According to the Mahawansha (main Chronicle of Sri Lanka) king kashyapa built his kingdom in Sigiriya to protect from his brother king Mihidu.  But legends says that king Kashyapa  subsided during the war between his brother. Sigiriya provides evident for the great technologies in ancient Sri Lanka.  Several ponds are located in the top of the Sigiriya. Water for this water gardens come from the underground pipes system. This system is also active in rain season. 

Drawings of Maidens

Sigiriya Bithu Sithuwam Sigiriya Bithu Sithuwam

Most of the people climb Sigiriya in order to watch these drawings. Those are very beautiful. Most of the peoples believes those drawings shows the ladies who was gone for warship the Buddha. But some peoples give various interpretations for these paintings. They says those paintings describes Angeles. According to the legends and references there was 500 paintings in Sigiriya, but today 22 drawings only exists.

The mirror wall

The mirror wall is a face of the rock polished as the mirror. This is another example for great technique in ancient Sri Lanka. In this wall peoples who visit Sigiriya wrote thousands of poems to describe their experience. Those are describing the beauty of the drawings. These poems wrote in ancient language in Sri Lanka.   

Wednesday, October 3, 2012

Sri Lanka Economic between 1970 and 1977 years

Economic policies which followed in the Sri Lanka in between 1970 -1977 and after the 1977 years are totally different. Before 1977, Economic of Sri Lanka followed internal oriented economic policies, such as limitation of exports and imports, limitation of the foreign exchange currency. In these time most of the Economic policies of Sri Lanka tried to build a national economic without any interfere of other countries. Follow mentioned some characteristics of the economy in that time.
  • Restricted for the import, in order to achieve these policy makers conducted huge amount of custom duties.
  • Economic polies built policies buildup for develop import substitution industries inside the Sri Lanka. Government gave   assistance for these industries.
  • Strong rules for foreign currency control are conducted by policy makers.  Government conducted foreign currency exchange rates. Government did not allow deciding it by market operations. Therefore in this period Sri Lanka has an over valuated exchange rate.
  • Capital account and current account were closeted. Thereby peoples couldn’t exchange rupees in to foreign currencies even for use transactions of current account.
  • Government controlled prices of the economy. Therefore open market mechanism was interrupted. Involvement of government for the market was high and main industries conducted by government.

In the 1977, government changed and new president Mr. J.R. Jayawardene decided to change economic policies. He opened the market for private section. Foreign policies were totally changed. Government followed liberal policies Instead of the government involvement for all element of the economy. Government allowed and promoted investment in private section. After the 1977, policy makers follow more external oriented policies. Some characterizes of the Economic in these years, shown below.
  • Liberalization of the economy
  • Decrease rules related import and exports
  • Cancel the Multiple exchange rates and official exchange rates. Then, established the floating exchange rates decided according to demand and supply in exchange currency market.
  • Foreign investments were increased in Sri Lankan Economy.
  • Prices of the internal market mainly decided by market demand and supply, but prices of some goods and services still control by government authorities. (Bus fees, petroleum etc.)
  • Industries developed armed to foreign market



Monday, October 1, 2012

History of the Buddhism

History of the Buddhism in Sri Lanka – part one

MahiyanganayaAccording to the legends, Buddha three times visits to Sri Lanka. 1st time was nine months after Buddha’s enlightenment. Arrived place called Mahiyanganaya. On those times, Society of Sri Lanka is not formed one and inhabits indigenous peoples called Yaksha, Naga, and Deva. In a first visit Buddha could move them to Buddhism after the showing his psychic power. This was the first incident about Buddhism in the Sri Lanka.
After the five years later, Buddha came again to Sri Lanka, place called Nagadipaya one of the islands located in north province. Objective was this travel was pacifying the war between two Kings of Nagas called Chulodara and Mahodara. Argument over a jeweled throne conduced to this war. After the arriving of Buddha, he explained disadvantages of quarrelling. Troop accepts teaching of Buddha and war was ended. Two kings gave up throne and consecrated it for Buddha as a gratitude for evolves to solve this problem.   According to the legends, the pagoda was built by God Suman saman and enshrined throne inside the core of the pagoda. 3rd Naga king, Maniakkitha invited to Buddha for visit again to island.

According to this invitation, Buddha came to Sri Lanka again. Maniakkitha king rule his power in Kalaniya area. So Buddha arrived to Kalaniya, as his third and final travel to Sri Lanka in his lifetime. This travel is more important to Sri lanka. Because Buddha left his foot print at the top of the mountain called Samanala kanda (famous as Sri Pada).

After the arriving of Buddha, there are no significant incidents until Prince Vijaya came to Sri Lanka. Vijaya was a prince of south India and he came to Sri Lanka due to disagreement between his and his father. He married with an indigenous princess named Kuveni in order to claim to royalty.  He got two child named Jeevahaththa and Disala. According to the legends aborigines of Sri Lanka descend from them. But after the several years later, King Vijaya removed his domestic princess and he married with a princess of South India. Arriving of the VIjaya and others didn’t important to Buddhism but it important to the Colonization of the Sri Lankan society.

Mihindu himi When the 250 BCE Sri Lanka has not any religions. Some peoples believes  Even through Buddha came three times Sri Lanka, Buddhism didn’t spread among peoples in Sri Lanka until 250 BCE. In these times Buddhism in the India also has been destroyed by vinous corrupt monks. So king Ashoka decided to conduct a Buddhist council in order to protect flawless Buddhism. As a result of this nine groups dispatched around the world in order to promote the Buddhism. Eventually, one group who was lead Mihindu Thero came to Sri Lanka with Theravada Buddhism.  They came to Mihinthalaya Mountain on the Posan full moon poya day (July).  According to the legends in that time king Tissa (king of the Sri Lanka) came to Mihinthalaya Mountain for hunting. Mihindu Thero and king meet together at the foot of the mountain. After that Mihindu thero discoursed the teaching of Buddhism. After king Tissa became a Buddhist. He gives huge contribute to spread the Buddhism around the whole country. Peoples also had find salvation the Buddhism. Some peoples became renounced and became monks, even some ministers of the king became as monks.  In that times ordain only males. Because ordain for women didn’t start yet. If ordain women, inevitable the service of Woman monks (Bhikkuni). Lot of women required to join to Buddha Sasana( to become a female monk). Queen Anula who was the Queen of Kind Tissa) leaded to this request.  In Order to establish the Bikkuni Sasanaya (female monks) Sangamiththa Theraniya came to the Sri Lanka with the branch of the Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi and it planted in Anuradapura. These scared boo tree also can be seen in today in Anuradapura. 

Sri Pada - Scared Mountain

Sri Pada

Sri Pada is a mountain located in southern part of the hill county of Sri Lanka, 122 kilometers away from Colombo and height of 2243 meters above sea level.  Mountain comprises to two district, Ratnapura and Nuwara Eliya. There are no other mountains nearby. Area of this mountain nominated as wildlife reserves.  Environment of the mountain is cool and rainy.  Four main rivers starts in this mountain. Those are Mahaveli river (longest river), Kalu ganga river, Walave river, Kalani river. This place famous among Buddhist around the word and other religious groups also visit and worship this place.

This place has long history. Buddhists believe that, on the third visit of Buddha to Sri Lanka, Buddha left his footprint on the rock at the top of the mountain. So this place became a place of worship among Buddhists.  But after the hundred years ago other religious groups believes according to their own belief, so they thought that footprint left by their prophet.  Hindu peoples believe that footprint as the footprint of Sriva god, and Muslim peoples believe that it as footprint of Adams.   

RIver in Sri PadaEvery Buddhists of Sri Lanka tries to worship the sacred Footprint of the Buddha at least one time in his/her life time. The climbing season (worshiping season) is December to May. Other months are not suitable, because many number wild animals walk in free in those times. So Climbing in out of season may be dangerous.   Climbing is really tired, but peoples do it in devout mind. Several customs can be seen among devotees. First one is They song special kind of poems called “ thunsarane” wrote about characterizes of Buddha. Those poems are comes with traditionally. If someone worships in the first times, he/she have to fulfill several requirements.  

There are three roads to climb the mountain. First one is across the Ratnapura. This road is a long root compared with other road. If, someone climb in this road he/she has to walk more than 12 miles.  It is possible to travel via vehicle up to Siripagama village and onwards travelling only by walk. Second root for climbing Sri Pada is kuruvita road. This road also long as ratnapura road. Climbing is start from Erathna Vilage. This road meets ratnapura road in a place called Haramitipana. Third root is via Haton town and it is the most famous and easier road to climb and worship the Shi Pada. Most of the area on the road is covered by steps.
Sri Pada

Most peoples like to climb mountain in night even colder environment in order to watch the sun rise on the tomorrow morning. This occasion is very attractive and lot of peoples waits to watch it.  Peoples believe that god called “Sumana Saman” is tutelary to this mountain. So peoples who climb and worship this place anticipate the protection of this god.   

Sri Pada mountain
Sri Pada mountain

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